Section 4. Surveillance and Reporting

1. Vaccination
2. Registration
3. Exhibits, Fairs, and Shows
4. Surveillance and Monitoring
5. Reporting Disease

Surveillance and Monitoring

Surveillance and monitoring are key factors in early detection as it lowers the risk of the spread of disease and leads to better response times. Do your part to prevent the spread of avian influenza and check your bird's health daily.

Personal Surveillance and Monitoring:10
1) Know the Signs of AI.
  • Decreased activity, ruffled feathers, poor appetite, diarrhea.
  • Decreased egg production, soft shells or misshapen eggs.
  • Swelling of the head, eyelids, comb, wattles and hocks.
  • Cyanosis (dark blue color) of comb and wattles, sneezing, or nasal discharge.
  • Sudden death.
2) Inspect your flocks daily.

3) Wear gloves when handling a sick bird. The sick bird should be placed in isolation for 30 days away from other birds.

4) Contact your vet if your birds have serious signs of AI as described above.

Tracheal Swab
Photo Credit: Dr. Nathaniel Tablante

National and International Surveillance and Monitoring:
USDA APHIS and similar government agencies work closely with international organizations to assist avian influenza affected countries with disease prevention, management, and eradication activities. By helping these countries monitor, manage, and eradicate highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks, USDA can reduce the risk of the disease spreading from overseas to the United States.3
  • USDA conducts avian influenza surveillance programs including the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the Smuggling Interdiction and Trade Compliance (SITC).
  • The National Center of Import Export (NCIE) requires all imported live birds, except from Canada, to undergo a minimum 30 day quarantine period where they are tested for avian influenza before entering the country.
  • Poultry and eggs from countries with HPAI H5N1 are not imported into the U.S.