Saturday, May 25, 2024, 1:05 PM
Site: Extension Foundation Online Campus
Course: Avian Influenza Biosecurity for Youth and 4-H Members (Avian Influenza Biosecurity for Youth and 4-H Members)
Glossary: Glossary/Acronyms
A

AI

Avian Influenza

Antibody

A protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. The antibody helps your body get rid of the antigen.

Antigen

Any substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies and combine specifically with them.

APHIS

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
C

Case Fatality Ratio

A ratio that shows the number of deaths in infected cases over the total number of infected cases.

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Cloaca

The common cavity into which the intestinal, urinary, and reproductive canals open in birds.

Compost

The breakdown of organic waste, such as plants, food, and manure by bacteria.

Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the exposed portion of the eyeball and inner surface of the eyelids.

Contaminated

To contain or be covered with germs such as bacteria and viruses.

Culling

The process of removing, and usually killing, animals from a group based on specific criteria such as infection or contamination.

Cyanosis

Blueness of the skin, as from imperfectly oxygenated blood.
D

Decontamination

A two step process involving cleaning and disinfecting that removes and kills germs.

Depopulation

Method by which animals are destroyed quickly and humanely.

Disinfectant

Substances that are applied to non-living objects to destroy germs that are living on the objects.
E

Endemic

Disease that is natural to or characteristic of a specific place.

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

Epidemic

When a disease temporarily affects many people at the same time in one location where it is not usually prevalent.
F

FEMA

Federal Emergency Management Agency
H

HA

Hemagglutinin

HPAI

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza
I

ICS

Incident Command System

ICT

Incident Command Team

Incineration

Complete combustion of organic compounds. This is a biologically safe method but may be slow and expensive. There may be concerns about air pollution.

Indemnification

The act of compensation.
L

Live Bird Market

Live bird markets are typicallypermanent structures in which birds can be housed until theyare sold. Live bird markets bring together a mixture of birdspecies thatare commonly produced by multiple suppliers. The mixture ofspecies, the lack of all-in–all-out management, and multiplesuppliers are all features that make LBM potential sources ofavian influenza viruses (AIV), especially for their supply flocks.

LPAI

Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza
M

Microbe

A very tiny living organism, such as a bacterium, fungus, protozoan or virus.

Monitoring

To observe and check the progress or quality of something over a period of time.



N

NA

Neuraminidase

NAHEMS

National Animal Health Emergency Management System

NCIE

National Center for Import Export

NMHM

National Museum of Health and Medicine

NPIP

National Poultry Improvement Plan

NVS

National Veterinary Stockpile

NVSL

National Veterinary Services Laboratories
O

OIE

World Organization for Animal Health
P

Pandemic

When disease is prevalent throughout an entire country, continent, or the whole world.

Pathogenicity

The disease-producing capacity of a pathogen.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

A technique for rapidly synthesizing large quantities of a given DNA segment.

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

Prophylactic

Preventive or protective.
Q

Quarantine

An imposed time period of isolation usually to prevent the spread of a disease.
R

Ratites

Large flightless birds such as ostriches and emus.

Rendering

High temperatures and pressure break down animal remains. This requires transportation off site but recycles carcasses into reusable protein feed.

Reservoir

The long-term host of a pathogen that remains asymptomatic from the disease it carries.

RT-PCR

Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction
S

SITC

Smuggling Interdiction and Trade Compliance Agency

Surveillance

The ongoing observation and collection of data which leads to action being taken to prevent and control a disease.
U

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture
V

Vaccination

The introduction of a weakened or killed microbe into the body in order to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against that microbe, thereby preventing disease upon next exposure.

VI

Virus Isolation

Virulence

The relative ability of a microorganism to cause disease.

Virus

A virus is a very small entity that consist essentially of a core of RNA or DNA surrounded by a protein coat that replicates, or copies itself, inside living cells.
W

WHO

World Health Organization